Safe handling refers to the process in which health care workers adhere to evidence-based practices (EBP) set forth by national organizations, that have been designed to eliminate or significantly reduce occupational exposure. Some of these practices include but are not limited to, donning of personal protective equipment such as a disposable gown, gloves, masks and the utilization of a closed-system drug transfer device. The key safe handling is to protect the health care worker throughout the three phases of contact with the hazardous drugs. These phases are drug preparation, administration and disposal. Research has shown that while compounding hazardous drugs in a Class II BSC in conjunction with a closed-system drug transfer device, a significant decrease in drug contaminants inside a Class II BSC has resulted. The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) further elaborates on the topic of safe handling by stating that a closed-system drug transfer device is viewed as one of safest measures to prevent hazardous drug exposure from coming in contact with a clinician’s working environment.It has been determined that current personal protective equipment (PPE) does not provide adequate protection against workers handling hazardous drugs - NIOSH states that “... measurable concentrations of some hazardous drugs have been documented in the urine of health care workers who prepared or administered them − even after safety precautions had been employed.” Further, NIOSH recommends that institutions should "consider using devices such as closed-system transfer devices. Closed systems limit the potential for generating aerosols and exposing workers". Other guidelines outline that "As other products become available, they should meet the definition of a closed system drug transfer device established by NIOSH and should be required to demonstrate their effectiveness in independent studies".
Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port and Hazardous drugsThe Magampura Mahinda Rajapaksa Port (also known as the Port of Hambantota) is a maritime port in Hambantota, Sri Lanka. The first phase of the port was opened on 18 November 2010, with the first ceremonial berthing of the naval ship "Jetliner" to use the port facilities. It is named after former President Mahinda Rajapaksa. Hambantota Port is built inland and operated by the Sri Lanka Ports Authority. Total estimated construction cost of the Phase 1 of the project is US $361 million and out of which, 85% has been funded by the Ex-Im Bank of the People's Republic of China.Construction of the port began in January 2008. It will be Sri Lanka’s largest port, after the Port of Colombo. The Port of Hambantota will serve ships travelling along one of world's busiest shipping lines - the east-west shipping route which passes six to ten nautical miles (19 km) south of Hambantota. The first phase of the port project will provide bunkering, ship repair, ship building, and crew change facilities. Later phases will raise capacity of the port up to 20 million TEUs per year. When completed, the port will be the biggest port constructed on land to date in the 21st century.Contents 1 Background 1.1 History 1.2 Location 2 Facilities 3 Construction 3.1 Plans 4 Arrival of the first vessel 5 Port operations 6 Greater Hambantota development projects 6.1 Proposed projects 6.2 Completed projects 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksBackgroundHistoryThe inland harbour on the Walawe river and the sea harbour on the bay of Godavaya in Ambalantota Trade were an important component in the economy of ancient Sri Lanka, and Godavaya was an important maritime settlement, serving Tissamaharama and Ridiyagama in the kingdom of Ruhuna. This port was first known to be operational in the general area of Hambantota around 250 BCE, when Chinese and Arabian merchants used it as part of the maritime silk route. Around the 1st century CE, a furnace powered by monsoon winds was built near Embilipitiya, which used wind based air supply to produce high carbon steel. This steel was exported to Rome and other European areas for the manufacture of armor and swords, with ships sailing to a port in Hambantota to obtain steel. Hambantota is located along the southern coast of Sri Lanka, six miles away from east-west shipping routes Hambantota Port Hambantota Port Vehicle Unloading LocationSri Lanka is situated along the key shipping route between the Malacca Straits and the Suez Canal, which links Asia and Europe. An estimated 36,000 ships, including 4,500 oil tankers, use the route annually. However the only major port in Sri Lanka, the Port of Colombo, is catered towards container handling and is unable to provide facilities for port related industries and services. Therefore a new port was proposed near the city of Hambantota, which has a natural harbor and is located on the southern tip of Sri Lanka close to international shipping routes.A new port will help relieve pressure on the Colombo port, and also provide services to ships that normally take three-and-a-half day detours from their shipping lanes to receive these services, including refueling, maintenance, logistics and buying provisions and medical supplies. Proposals to build a port in Hambantota date back over three decades, but plans never got out of conceptual stages. The Port of Hambantota project was finally launched after Mahinda Rajapaksa, who is a native of Hambantota, was elected President of Sri Lanka in 2005. A leading maritime expert, Nuwan Peiris, commented that this port is a conflict between '...the intervention of two Asian superpowers in Sri Lanka, namely China and India, in a bid to gain supremacy in the case of the former, and a proxy-battle to maintain it’s natural defense-perimeter in the case of latter. Chinese involvement in a harbour project (Hambantota) in the down-south of the island has given this battle a renewed intensity. This Article further examines the geopolitical background that led to this battle, and looks how “energy security” becomes the core for geopolitical change in the South Asian landscape'. FacilitiesThe first phase of the Port of Hambantota will consist of two 600m general purpose berths, a 310m bunkering berth and a 120m small craft berth. It will also contain a bunkering facility and tank farm which will include 8 tanks for marine fuel, 3 tanks containing aviation fuel and 3 for Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG). A 15 floor administrative complex will also be constructed as part of the project.The mouth of the natural harbor at Hambantota has a 22m depth. When completed, the port will have a 1.5 km long breakwater, with a minimum basin depth of 17m. This is compared to the 15.5m depth of the Port of Colombo. The turning circle will be 600m. A dam will also be built to prevent flooding in nearby areas, and a seawall made of interlocking concrete blocks will protect the port from high seas.A $550 million tax-free port zone is being set up outside the port, with local and international companies expressing interest in setting up shipbuilding, ship-repair and warehousing facilities in the zone. It is expected to be completed by November 2010.The finished project is expected to provide indirect employment to over 50,000 people. ConstructionLaunched on 15 January 2008, the Hambantota Port is being constructed by the Chinese companies China Harbour Engineering Company and Sinohydro Corporation. The total cost of the first phase of the project is estimated at $360 million, excluding $76.5 million for the bunker terminal. 85% of the funding is provided by the Chinese Government and the remaining 15% by the Sri Lanka Ports Authority.Initially set to open in the first half of 2011, five months ahead of schedule, the first phase of the project was completed by November 2010. PlansThe second phase of the Port of Hambantota project, which will include a container terminal, is expected to be completed by 2014. The second stage of the port is estimated to cost around US$750 million. The third phase will include a dockyard. Upon completion, the port will cover 4,000 acres (16 km2) of land and accommodate 33 vessels at any given time, making it the largest port in South Asia. Arrival of the first vesselThe harbor was formally declared open on 18 November 2010, by Sri Lanka's president Mahinda Rajapaksa with a ceremonial berthing of a vessel at the port. After sailing 90 nautical miles from the Naval Base in Galle, Sri Lanka Navy's ship "Jetliner" was the first vessel to drop anchor at the harbor. Two vessels, Pradeepa 2 (a traditional sailing yacht) and a commercial cargo ship followed the jetliner ceremonially sailing into the new harbour. Pradeepa 2 was chosen in recognition of Sri Lanka's age old role as a key stopping point on the ancient east-west silk trading route. Workers unloaded the first consignment of international cargo from Myanmar from the vessel "Seruwila" at the auspicious time of 06:21 GMT. A first day cover and a special commemorative stamp were issued by the Department of Post - Sri Lanka to mark the event.The launch of the second phase of the development of the port commenced at 06:27 GMT on the same day. There is also a move to create this port as a free port due to its commercial inactivity. Port operationsThe SLPA had decided to divert all vehicle shipments to the Ruhunu Magampura International port from May 31 as a measure to relieve the congestion at Sri Lanka's main port Colombo Harbour. On June 6, 2012, Ruhunu Magampura International Port officially started Transshipment Operations with the N4K FRICIA ship from Japan containing 15 vehicles and the Ellison Sun with 1000 vehicles from Chennai Harbour, India.Japanese, South Korean and Indian car makers have begun transshipping increasing numbers of vehicles through the port. In the first nine months of 2014, the number of vehicles handled at Hambantota crossed the 100,000 mark, up more than 300% compared to the same period in 2013, with the number of ship calls more than doubling to 161. The biggest user of the port is the Hyundai plant near Chennai while Tata and Maruti vehicles also come from Mumbai. In future, all Hyundai vehicles made in South Korea, China and India will be transhipped through Hambantota 15,000 units a month once more yard space is available. Greater Hambantota development projectsThe construction of the Port of Hambantota is part of a larger development project centered around the Hambantota District. Apart from the port, the other development projects undergoing are: Extension of Southern Expressway to Kataragama Extension of Southern Railway to Kataragama An oil refinery and an oil tank farm with 14 for fuel bunkering with a total investment of US$76 million 500-acre (2.0 km2) Safari Park is being constructed in Ridiyagama, Ambalantota scheduled to be open in 2011
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