Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus and Benton, California

Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus (c.36 BC–after 21) was a Roman Senator who had a distinguished career.

Contents 1 Family Background & Early Life 2 Career 3 Literature 4 Family & Issue 5 References 6 Sources

Family Background & Early Life

Messallinus was born and raised in Rome. He was oldest son of the famous Roman Senator, orator and literacy patron Marcus Valerius Messalla Corvinus whom he resembled in character, from wife Calpurnia. Messallinus had two sisters Valeria Messalina who married the Roman Senator Titus Statilius Taurus III, another sister called Valeria who married the Roman consul Marcus Lollius. From his father’s second marriage, his younger paternal half-brother was the Roman Senator Marcus Aurelius Cotta Maximus Messalinus. Messallinus was the great-uncle of Roman empress Lollia Paulina who was the third wife of Roman emperor Caligula and a relation to Roman empress Statilia Messalina, the third wife of Roman emperor Nero. Career

In 21 BC, Messallinus was chosen as one of the Priests in charge of the Sibylline Books. He served as a consul in 3 BC.

In 6, Messallinus served as a Governor in Illyricum. During his time in Illyricum, he served with Tiberius with distinction in a campaign against the Pannonians and Dalmatians in the uprising of the Great Illyrian Revolt with the Legio XX Valeria Victrix. Messallinus with the half-filled Legio XX Valeria Victrix, defeated the Pannonii led by Bato the Daesitiate and prevented spread of the uprising. For his defeat over Bato, Messallinus was rewarded with a triumphal decoration (ornamenta triumphalia) and a place in the procession during Tiberius’ Pannonian triumph in 12, four years after the death of his father.

Messallinus suggested to Roman emperor Tiberius an oath of allegiance should be sworn to him yearly. He also suggested two golden statues be placed in two temples, in celebration of Rome's foreign victories and in memory of Germanicus, which Tiberius rejected. Literature

The Latin Poem Tibullus in his Elegy 2.5, celebrates the induction of Messallinus in the priestly college in charge of the Sibylline Books in 21 BC and also predicts a future triumph for the then young Messallinus as he imagines his father proudly witnessing the event (Elegy 2.5.119-20): Then let my Messalla sponsor entertainment for the crowd. And, as father, applaud when the chariot passes by.

In 13 BC, the Latin Poem Ovid published a three-book collection titled Epistulae ex Ponto (Letters from the Black Sea) also in elegiacs but addressed to named individuals, among them is Messallinus (1.7, 2.2). He is also addressed in Ovid’s Tristia (4.4). Family & Issue

According to the French Historian Christian Settipani, Messallinus married the Claudia Marcella Minor, one of the nieces of the Roman emperor Augustus. Marcella bore Messallinus a daughter called Valeria Messalla born ca. 10 BC, who later married the praetor of 17, Lucius Vipstanus Gallus.

Benton, California and Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus

Benton (formerly, Benton Station) is a census-designated place in Mono County, California, United States. It is located 3 miles (4.8 km) east-northeast of the community of Benton Hot Springs and 32 miles (51 km) north of the community of Bishop, at an elevation of 5387 feet (1642 m). The population was 280 at the 2010 census, up from 196 reported at 2000 by Mono County.

Benton is in area codes 442 and 760 and ZIP code 93512. It is also known as Benton Hot Springs because of the hot springs it features. Benton was once a small mining town with up to 5,000 inhabitants. Many of the original buildings still remain, but the town has never completely died. The 160 acre (65 hectare) Benton Paiute reservation is in the vicinity with about 50 full-time residents.

Contents 1 History 2 Location 3 Geography 4 Demographics 5 Education 6 Attractions 7 References

History

Benton is one of the oldest existing towns in Mono County. Benton was originally founded by the western Indians who came to make use of its hot springs. As the nearby towns of Bodie and Aurora grew in size and population, Benton soon became a check-point for travelers on the way south in 1852.

Gold was discovered in the hills of Benton in 1862, and its population quickly grew. After hitting the initial strike of gold, not much more was found, but Benton's profits were soon primarily from silver. Unlike other mining towns, Benton was able to provide enough for the town to thrive and flourish for about fifty years. Although most of the main activity took place between 1862 and 1890, the town and its inhabitants have never completely died out.

The Carson and Colorado Railroad reached the place in 1883, and Benton was a stop. Location

Benton lies along U.S. Route 6, outside of Bishop, on the way to remote areas of Nevada. The terrain is described as high desert at an elevation of 5,377 feet (1,639 m) above sea level.

Although Benton is a small town, it is surrounded by other small towns and cities including Mammoth Lakes, Bishop, Death Valley, Lee Vining, June Lake, Tom's Place, Crowley Lake, and Convict Lake.

The Nevada state line is situated about six miles (10 km) northeast of Benton. U.S. Route 6 crosses this border, then climbs over 7,150 ft. (2,180m) Montgomery Pass at the northern end of the White Mountains. Benton has excellent views of 13,141 ft. (4,006m) Boundary Peak, Nevada's highest, and 13,441 ft. (4,097m) Montgomery Peak just inside California. Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP covers an area of 28.5 square miles (73.8 km²), 99.93% of it land, and 0.07% of it water. Demographics

The 2010 United States Census reported that Benton had a population of 280. The population density was 9.8 people per square mile (3.8/km²). The racial makeup of Benton was 199 (71.1%) White,0 (0.4%) African American, 37 (21.1%) Native American, 1 (0.4%) Asian, 0 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 15 (5.4%) from other races, and 5 (1.8%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 38 persons (13.6%).

The Census reported that 280 people (100% of the population) lived in households, 0 (0%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 0 (0%) were institutionalized.

There were 122 households, out of which 29 (23.8%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 59 (48.4%) were opposite-sex married couples living together, 9 (7.4%) had a female householder with no husband present, 7 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 14 (11.5%) unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 1 (0.8%) same-sex married couples or partnerships. 40 households (32.8%) were made up of individuals and 10 (8.2%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30. There were 75 families (61.5% of all households); the average family size was 2.81.

The population was spread out with 54 people (19.3%) under the age of 18, 10 people (3.6%) aged 18 to 24, 58 people (20.7%) aged 25 to 44, 123 people (43.9%) aged 45 to 64, and 35 people (12.5%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 48.8 years. For every 100 females there were 105.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.6 males.

There were 159 housing units at an average density of 5.6 per square mile (2.2/km²), of which 86 (70.5%) were owner-occupied, and 36 (29.5%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 1.1%; the rental vacancy rate was 15.6%. 191 people (68.2% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 89 people (31.8%) lived in rental housing units. Education

Benton is in the Eastern Sierra Unified School District. An elementary school, Edna Beaman Elementary, is located in town. There was a high school, but it was closed at the end of the 2011-2012 school year. Attractions

The hot springs are one of the major attractions in Benton, as well as fine bed and breakfast rooms and overnight soaking tubs. With the abandonment of travelers' services at nearby Montgomery Pass, Nevada it offers the only lodging, restaurant and gas station services within a 30 mile (50 km) radius. There are several old mines in the surrounding hills that have also been a source of interest to tourists as well as the hiking and mountain biking trails in the area. Many of the original buildings from the old mine town still exist and are open to exploration, including the cemetery. Benton is a departure point for hiking to Nevada high point Boundary Peak via a (rough) 2WD road to Queen Mine at 9,200 ft (2,800m) or a 4WD extension to Kennedy Saddle at 9,900 ft (3,020m).
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