Yugoslav monitor Sava and M-188 (Michigan highway)

The Yugoslav monitor Sava was a Temes-class river monitor built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy as SMS Bodrog. She fired the first shots of World War I on the night of 28 July 1914, when she and two other monitors shelled Serbian defences near Belgrade. During World War I she was part of the Danube Flotilla, and fought the Serbian and Romanian armies from Belgrade to the mouth of the Danube. In the closing stages of the war, she was the last monitor to withdraw towards Budapest, but was captured by the Serbs when she grounded on a sandbank downstream from Belgrade. After the war, she was transferred to the newly created Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later Yugoslavia), and renamed Sava.

During the German-led Axis invasion of Yugoslavia in April 1941, she served with the 1st Monitor Division. Along with her fellow monitor Vardar, she laid mines in the Danube near the Romanian border during the first few days of the invasion. The two monitors fought off several attacks by the Luftwaffe, but were forced to withdraw to Belgrade. Due to high river levels and low bridges, navigation was difficult, and Sava was scuttled by her crew on 11 April. Some of her crew tried to escape cross-country towards the southern Adriatic coast, but most were obliged to surrender on 14 April. The remainder made their way to the Bay of Kotor, which was captured by the Italian XVII Corps on 17 April. Sava was later raised by the navy of the Axis puppet state known as the Independent State of Croatia and continued to serve as Sava until the night of 8 September 1944 when she was again scuttled.

Following World War II, Sava was raised once again, and was refurbished to serve in the Yugoslav Navy from 1952 to 1962. She was then transferred to a state-owned company which was eventually privatised. As of 2014, Sava was still in service as a gravel barge. In 2005, the government of Serbia granted her limited heritage protection after citizens demanded that she be preserved as a floating museum, but little else has been done to restore her.

Contents 1 Description and construction 2 Career 2.1 World War I 2.1.1 Serbian campaign 2.1.2 Romanian campaign 2.2 Interwar period and World War II 2.3 Post-war period 3 Notes 4 Footnotes 5 References 5.1 Books 5.2 News 5.3 Websites

Description and construction

The ship was a Temes-class river monitor built for the Austro-Hungarian Navy by H. Schönichen and was originally named SMS Bodrog. She was laid down at Neupest in 1903, and along with her sister ship SMS Temes, she had an overall length of 57.7 m (189 ft 4 in), a beam of 9.5 m (31 ft 2 in), and a normal draught of 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in). Her standard displacement was 440 tonnes (430 long tons), and her crew consisted of 86 officers and enlisted men. Bodrog had two triple-expansion steam engines, each driving a single propeller shaft. Steam for the engines was provided by two Yarrow water-tube boilers, and her engines were rated at 1,400 indicated horsepower (1,000 kW). As designed, she had a maximum speed of 13 knots (24 km/h; 15 mph), and carried 62 tonnes (61 long tons) of coal.

Bodrog was armed with two single gun turrets of 120 mm (4.7 in)L/35 guns, a single 120 mm (4.7 in)L/10 howitzer, a single 66 mm (2.6 in)L/18 gun, and three machine guns. The maximum range of her Škoda 120 mm (4.7 in)L/35 guns was 10 kilometres (6.2 mi), and her howitzer could fire its 20 kg (44 lb) shell a maximum of 6.2 km (3.9 mi). Her armour consisted of belt, bulkheads and gun turrets 40 mm (1.6 in) thick and deck armour 25 mm (0.98 in) thick, and her conning tower was 75 mm (3.0 in) thick. Bodrog was launched on 12 April 1904 and completed on 10 November 1904. Career World War I Serbian campaign

Bodrog was commissioned into the Danube Flotilla, and at the start of World War I she was based in Zemun, just upstream from Belgrade on the Danube, with another three monitors and three patrol boats. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914, and that night Bodrog and two other monitors fired the first shots of the war against fortifications at the Zemun–Belgrade railway bridge over the Sava and on the Topčider Hill. The Serbs were outgunned by the monitors, and by August began to receive assistance from the Russians. This support included the supply and emplacement of naval guns and the establishment of river obstacles and mines.

The Austro-Hungarian base at Zemun was briefly evacuated due to a Serbian counterattack in September. In November, French artillery support arrived in Belgrade, endangering the monitor's anchorage. The stalemate continued until December 1914 when the Serbs briefly evacuated Belgrade in the face of an Austro-Hungarian assault. After less than two weeks, the Austrians had to withdraw from Belgrade, and it was soon recaptured by the Serbs with Russian and French reinforcements. Bodrog continued in action against Serbia and her allies at Belgrade until December, when her base was withdrawn to Petrovaradin for the winter.

The Germans and Austrians wanted to transport munitions down the Danube to the Ottoman Empire, so on 24 December 1914, Bodrog escorted a steamer loaded with munitions, a patrol boat and two tugs from Zemun past Belgrade towards the Iron Gates gorge on the Serbian–Romanian border. The convoy ran the gauntlet of the Belgrade defences unharmed, but when it reached Smederevo it received information that the Russians has established a minefield and log barrier just south of the Iron Gates. It turned back under heavy fire, and withdrew as far as Pančevo without serious damage to any vessel. Bodrog returned to base, and the monitor SMS Inn was sent to guard the munitions and escort the convoy back to Petrovaradin.

In January 1915, British artillery arrived in Belgrade, further bolstering its defences. Following the commencement of the Gallipoli campaign, munitions supply to the Ottomans became critical, so another attempt was planned. On 30 March, another steamer left Zemun, escorted by Bodrog and the monitor SMS Enns. The convoy was undetected as it sailed past Belgrade at night during a storm, but after the monitors returned to base, the steamer struck a mine near Vinča, and after coming under heavy artillery, exploded near Ritopek. On 22 April 1915, a British picket boat that had been brought overland by rail from Salonika was used to attack the Danube Flotilla anchorage at Zemun, firing two torpedoes without success.

In September 1915, the Central Powers were joined by Bulgaria, and the Serbian Army soon faced an overwhelming Austro-Hungarian, German and Bulgarian ground invasion. In early October, the Austro-Hungarian 3rd Army attacked Belgrade, and Bodrog, along with the majority of the flotilla, was heavily engaged in support of the crossings near the Belgrade Fortress and Ada Ciganlija island. Romanian campaign The Danube along the Romanian-Bulgarian border, showing the locations of Orșova, Giurgiu, Turnu Măgurele and Zimnicea

Following the capture of Belgrade on 11 October and the initial clearance of mines and other obstacles, the flotilla sailed downstream to Orșova near the Hungarian–Romanian border and waited for the lower Danube to be swept for mines. Commencing on 30 October 1915, they escorted a series of munitions convoys down the Danube to Lom where they were transferred to the Bulgarian railway system for shipment to the Ottoman Empire.

In November 1915, Bodrog and the other monitors were assembled at Rustschuk, Bulgaria. The Central Powers were aware that the Romanians were negotiating to enter the war on the side of the Entente, so the flotilla established a sheltered base in the Belene Canal to protect the 480-kilometre (300 mi) Danube border between Romania and Bulgaria.

When the Romanians entered the war on 27 August 1916, the monitors were again at Rustschuk, and were immediately attacked by three improvised torpedo boats operating out of the Romanian river port of Giurgiu. The torpedoes that were fired missed the monitors but struck a lighter loaded with fuel. Tasked with shelling Giurgiu, the Second Monitor Division, consisting of Bodrog and three other monitors, set fire to oil storage tanks, the railway station and magazines, and sank several Romanian lighters. While the attack was underway, the First Monitor Division escorted supply ships back to the Belene anchorage. Bodrog and her companions then destroyed two Romanian patrol boats and an improvised minelayer on their way back to Belene. This was followed by forays of the Division both east and west of Belene, during which both Turnu Măgurele and Zimnicea were shelled.

Bodrog was sent to the mouth of the Danube to protect withdrawing Austro-Hungarian troops towards the end of the war. She was the last Austro-Hungarian monitor to withdraw towards Budapest and was the only one that failed to reach the city. On 31 October 1918,

M-188 (Michigan highway) and Yugoslav monitor Sava

M-188 is a 4.559-mile-long (7.337 km) state trunkline highway in the US state of Michigan. It runs from Eaton Rapids to the VFW National Home for Children, southeast of town through a rural area. Approximately 1,000 vehicles each day use a highway that was first designated in the 1930s and paved in the 1940s.

Contents 1 Route description 2 History 3 Major intersections 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Route description Running along the Grand River in Eaton Rapids

Starting in Eaton Rapids, M-188 heads eastward from the intersection with M-99/M-50 (Michigan highway) toward the Grand River. The highway follows Water Street southeasterly along the river through residential neighborhoods and exits town. M-188 turns back due east on VFW Road to run through farm fields. Near the intersection with Tucker Road, the highway turns south and then southeasterly to avoid a bend in the river. After this bend, VFW Road once again runs due east to the intersection with Waverly Road. M-188 turns south on Waverly Road, which runs along the Eaton–Ingham county line. The M-188 designation ends at the VFW National Home for Children about one mile (1.6 km) south of VFW Road.

M-188 is maintained by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT) like other state highways in Michigan. As a part of these maintenance responsibilities, the department tracks the volume of traffic that uses the roadways under its jurisdiction. These volumes are expressed using a metric called annual average daily traffic, which is a statistical calculation of the average daily number of vehicles on a segment of roadway. MDOT's surveys in 2010 showed that 986 vehicles in the city of Eaton Rapids, and 1,103 used the trunkline outside of town, traveled along the highway on average. M-188 has not been listed on the National Highway System, a network of roads important to the country's economy, defense, and mobility. History

M-188 was designated in late 1932, providing highway access to the VFW National Home from Eaton Rapids in southeast Eaton County. In early 1941, the trunkline was completely paved; and the highway has been unchanged since. Major intersections See also Michigan Highways portal
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