Jonathan Balcombe and Isochron

Jonathan Balcombe (born 28 February 1959) is an ethologist and author. He currently serves as Department Chair for Animal Studies with Humane Society University, in Washington, DC. He lectures internationally on animal behavior and the human-animal relationship.

Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Writing 4 Advocacy 5 Bibliography 6 References 7 External links

Early life and education

Balcombe was born in Hornchurch, England. He grew up in New Zealand and Canada before settling in the United States in 1987.

Balcombe earned a Bachelor of Science degree in biology in 1983 from York University in Toronto, then a Master of Science in biology from Carleton University in Ottawa in 1987. In 1991, he completed a Ph.D in ethology (animal behavior) at the University of Tennessee, where he studied mother-pup vocal communication in the Mexican free-tailed bat. Career

Balcombe has worked for several animal protection organizations, including The Humane Society of the United States, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. He also worked as a research coordinator and grant writer for Immersion Medical, a for-profit company that makes virtual reality training simulators for minimally-invasive surgery.

In 2009, Balcombe was hired to teach a course in animal behavior for Humane Society University. Two years later, he assumed the role of Department Chair for Animal Studies. He developed and taught a course in Animal Sentience, and commissioned the development of courses in Evolution, Food Choice and Animal Protection, and Gender and Animals.

Balcombe currently serves as Director for Animal Sentience with the Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy, an affiliate of The Humane Society of the United States, in Washington, DC. Writing

Balcombe's first book, The Use of Animals in Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, and Recommendations, was published by Humane Society Press in 2000. His trade book, Pleasurable Kingdom: Animals and the Nature of Feeling Good, was released by Macmillan in 2006. The book details Balcombe's positions on the sentience of animals, and the existence of pleasure seeking behavior, in contrast with the behavioralist mainstream, which rejects anthropomorphism of animals. Deutschlandradio called the book a "convincing and a fun read."

In 2010, Balcombe published Second Nature: The Inner Lives of Animals, in which he surveys recent scientific discoveries about animal cognition, emotion, and virtue, and aims to "protest against what he sees as an unbroken tradition of human cruelty and indifference."

The Exultant Ark: A Pictorial Tour of Animal Pleasure was released in 2011 by the University of California Press. Using images of contended animals in their natural environment, Balcombe "proves that animals aren’t always engaged in a battle for survival but will frequently do things for nothing more than the feeling of satisfaction." Balcombe disputes the mainstream scientific community's belief that the animal kingdom is an unforgiving struggle for survival. The book briefly broke into the top 100 on Amazon.com following favorable reviews in The New York Times and the New York Post.

Balcombe has published over 50 scholarly articles and book chapters on various topics, including animal behavior, animal research, animal dissection, medical simulation, and veganism. He additionally wrote a commissioned article titled After Meat in December 2013 for the science magazine Nautilus, and worked on a book on the inner lives of fishes. Advocacy

Balcombe uses a variety of platforms to advocate for a sea-change in the human-animal relationship. In addition to his books and journal papers, he is a regular speaker at conferences, campuses, public schools and other venues. He is interviewed often in the media, and he has written blogs for Psychology Today, One Green Planet, Secretary of Innovation, and Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. He is a manuscript reviewer for scholarly journals such as Animal Behaviour, the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, and the Journal of Consciousness Studies.

Balcombe expressed his views on the use of battery hens in industrial agriculture during a New Zealand conference. Balcombe stated that our moral obligation to the hens is greater due to their ability to suffer, saying "it's not about how their intelligence compares to ours, it's about how much they can feel pain, suffering, joy and pleasure."

Balcombe commented on a Tufts University report about the decline of vivisection. He maintains that reliable tests require better care for the animals involved. He referenced a 1990 study on lab mice that revealed that inconsistencies in test results can arise based on the stress level of each rat.

Balcombe also has served as an expert witness for undercover investigations by several organizations, most notably by the organization Mercy for Animals documenting cruelty to pigs, cattle, turkeys, and fish. In his 2011 response to an exposé by the animal protection organization Mercy for Animals of animal abuse on a pig farm, Balcombe described the farm's conditions as "an unremitting hell on earth," adding that "these intelligent animals endure awful physical and psychological suffering." Bibliography Books The Use of Animals in Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, and Recommendations (Humane Society Press, 2000) ISBN 978-0965894210 Pleasurable Kingdom: Animals and the Nature of Feeling Good (Macmillan, 2006) ISBN 978-1403986023 Second Nature: The Inner Lives of Animals (Macmillan, 2010) ISBN 978-0230107816 The Exultant Ark: A Pictorial Tour of Animal Pleasure (University of California Press, 2011) ISBN 978-0520260245 Articles/chapters "A Biologist’s Journey to Veg" in Michael Lanfield The Interconnectedness of Life: We Are Interconnected. We Are Interconnected Films, 2015.

Isochron and Jonathan Balcombe

Not to be confused with Isochrone. For the drug with trade name Isochron, see Isosorbide dinitrate .

In the mathematical theory of dynamical systems, an isochron is a set of initial conditions for the system that all lead to the same long-term behaviour.

Contents 1 Mathematical isochron 1.1 An introductory example 1.2 Accurate forecasting requires isochrons 2 References

Mathematical isochron An introductory example

Consider the ordinary differential equation for a solution evolving in time:

This ordinary differential equation (ODE) needs two initial conditions at, say, time . Denote the initial conditions by and where and are some parameters. The following argument shows that the isochrons for this system are here the straight lines .

The general solution of the above ODE is

Now, as time increases, , the exponential terms decays very quickly to zero (exponential decay). Thus all solutions of the ODE quickly approach . That is, all solutions with the same have the same long term evolution. The exponential decay of the term brings together a host of solutions to share the same long term evolution. Find the isochrons by answering which initial conditions have the same .

At the initial time we have and . Algebraically eliminate the immaterial constant from these two equations to deduce that all initial conditions have the same , hence the same long term evolution, and hence form an isochron. Accurate forecasting requires isochrons

Let's turn to a more interesting application of the notion of isochrons. Isochrons arise when trying to forecast predictions from models of dynamical systems. Consider the toy system of two coupled ordinary differential equations

A marvellous mathematical trick is the normal form (mathematics) transformation. Here the coordinate transformation near the origin

to new variables transforms the dynamics to the separated form

Hence, near the origin, decays to zero exponentially quickly as its equation is . So the long term evolution is determined solely by : the equation is the model.

Let us use the equation to predict the future. Given some initial values of the original variables: what initial value should we use for ? Answer: the that has the same long term evolution. In the normal form above, evolves independently of . So all initial conditions with the same , but different , have the same long term evolution. Fix and vary gives the curving isochrons in the plane. For example, very near the origin the isochrons of the above system are approximately the lines . Find which isochron the initial values lie on: that isochron is characterised by some ; the initial condition that gives the correct forecast from the model for all time is then .

You may find such normal form transformations for relatively simple systems of ordinary differential equations, both deterministic and stochastic, via an interactive web site.
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