Contents 1 Early life and education 2 Career 3 Writing 4 Advocacy 5 Bibliography 6 References 7 External linksEarly life and educationBalcombe was born in Hornchurch, England. He grew up in New Zealand and Canada before settling in the United States in 1987.Balcombe earned a Bachelor of Science degree in biology in 1983 from York University in Toronto, then a Master of Science in biology from Carleton University in Ottawa in 1987. In 1991, he completed a Ph.D in ethology (animal behavior) at the University of Tennessee, where he studied mother-pup vocal communication in the Mexican free-tailed bat. CareerBalcombe has worked for several animal protection organizations, including The Humane Society of the United States, Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals. He also worked as a research coordinator and grant writer for Immersion Medical, a for-profit company that makes virtual reality training simulators for minimally-invasive surgery.In 2009, Balcombe was hired to teach a course in animal behavior for Humane Society University. Two years later, he assumed the role of Department Chair for Animal Studies. He developed and taught a course in Animal Sentience, and commissioned the development of courses in Evolution, Food Choice and Animal Protection, and Gender and Animals.Balcombe currently serves as Director for Animal Sentience with the Humane Society Institute for Science and Policy, an affiliate of The Humane Society of the United States, in Washington, DC. WritingBalcombe's first book, The Use of Animals in Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, and Recommendations, was published by Humane Society Press in 2000. His trade book, Pleasurable Kingdom: Animals and the Nature of Feeling Good, was released by Macmillan in 2006. The book details Balcombe's positions on the sentience of animals, and the existence of pleasure seeking behavior, in contrast with the behavioralist mainstream, which rejects anthropomorphism of animals. Deutschlandradio called the book a "convincing and a fun read."In 2010, Balcombe published Second Nature: The Inner Lives of Animals, in which he surveys recent scientific discoveries about animal cognition, emotion, and virtue, and aims to "protest against what he sees as an unbroken tradition of human cruelty and indifference."The Exultant Ark: A Pictorial Tour of Animal Pleasure was released in 2011 by the University of California Press. Using images of contended animals in their natural environment, Balcombe "proves that animals aren’t always engaged in a battle for survival but will frequently do things for nothing more than the feeling of satisfaction." Balcombe disputes the mainstream scientific community's belief that the animal kingdom is an unforgiving struggle for survival. The book briefly broke into the top 100 on Amazon.com following favorable reviews in The New York Times and the New York Post.Balcombe has published over 50 scholarly articles and book chapters on various topics, including animal behavior, animal research, animal dissection, medical simulation, and veganism. He additionally wrote a commissioned article titled After Meat in December 2013 for the science magazine Nautilus, and worked on a book on the inner lives of fishes. AdvocacyBalcombe uses a variety of platforms to advocate for a sea-change in the human-animal relationship. In addition to his books and journal papers, he is a regular speaker at conferences, campuses, public schools and other venues. He is interviewed often in the media, and he has written blogs for Psychology Today, One Green Planet, Secretary of Innovation, and Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. He is a manuscript reviewer for scholarly journals such as Animal Behaviour, the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, and the Journal of Consciousness Studies.Balcombe expressed his views on the use of battery hens in industrial agriculture during a New Zealand conference. Balcombe stated that our moral obligation to the hens is greater due to their ability to suffer, saying "it's not about how their intelligence compares to ours, it's about how much they can feel pain, suffering, joy and pleasure."Balcombe commented on a Tufts University report about the decline of vivisection. He maintains that reliable tests require better care for the animals involved. He referenced a 1990 study on lab mice that revealed that inconsistencies in test results can arise based on the stress level of each rat.Balcombe also has served as an expert witness for undercover investigations by several organizations, most notably by the organization Mercy for Animals documenting cruelty to pigs, cattle, turkeys, and fish. In his 2011 response to an exposé by the animal protection organization Mercy for Animals of animal abuse on a pig farm, Balcombe described the farm's conditions as "an unremitting hell on earth," adding that "these intelligent animals endure awful physical and psychological suffering." Bibliography Books The Use of Animals in Higher Education: Problems, Alternatives, and Recommendations (Humane Society Press, 2000) ISBN 978-0965894210 Pleasurable Kingdom: Animals and the Nature of Feeling Good (Macmillan, 2006) ISBN 978-1403986023 Second Nature: The Inner Lives of Animals (Macmillan, 2010) ISBN 978-0230107816 The Exultant Ark: A Pictorial Tour of Animal Pleasure (University of California Press, 2011) ISBN 978-0520260245 Articles/chapters "A Biologist’s Journey to Veg" in Michael Lanfield The Interconnectedness of Life: We Are Interconnected. We Are Interconnected Films, 2015.