Peter Chong (criminal) and Crowfoot

Peter Chong (莊炳強) (born in 1943) is an organized crime figure previously convicted of racketeering and extortion who has been described by prosecutors as the former leader of the Wo Hop To syndicate in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Contents 1 Criminal Activities 2 Arrests, Convictions, and Appeals 3 See also 4 References 5 External links

Criminal Activities

Chong came to the U.S. from Hong Kong in 1982, ostensibly to start a Chinese opera company, but was accused in court documents of becoming the boss of the Wo Hop To (和合桃) crime syndicate in northern California, a gang involved in loan sharking and extorting protection money from restaurants and gambling dens.

Prosecutors alleged that Chong along with Wayne Kwong and Raymond Kwok Chow were behind plot to murder Boston Chinese underground figure Bike Ming in an effort to form an umbrella organization called Tien Ha Wui ("Whole Earth Association"), that would dominate crime in Chinatowns throughout the U.S. Chong fled to Hong Kong days before his indictment in 1992 for his role in the plot, but was extradited to the U.S. in 2000. Arrests, Convictions, and Appeals

In 2002, Chong was found guilty of racketeering, murder-for-hire, extortion, and arson, and was sentenced to 15 years and eight months in prison. The prosecution was aided by the testimony of former Chong associate Raymond Chow

The murder for hire conviction was overturned in 2005 by the Ninth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals due to a lack of monetary payment to the killers, evidence of proof of involvement was taken to support additional prison time for the racketeering charge.He was thus sentenced to 11 and a half years on the remaining charges.

Chong was released from prison on July 29, 2008. See also List of crime bosses convicted in the 21st century

Crowfoot and Peter Chong (criminal)

For other uses, see Crowfoot (disambiguation).

Crowfoot (1830 – 25 April 1890) or Isapo-Muxika (Blackfoot Issapóómahksika, "Crow-big-foot") was a chief of the Siksika First Nation. His parents, Istowun-eh'pata (Packs a Knife) and Axkahp-say-pi (Attacked Towards Home), were Kainai. He was only five when Istowun-eh'pata was killed during a raid on the Crow tribe, and a year later, his mother remarried to Akay-nehka-simi (Many Names) of the Siksika people where he was brought up. Crowfoot was a warrior who fought in as many as 19 battles and sustained many injuries. Despite this, he tried to obtain peace instead of tribal warfare. Crowfoot is well known for his involvement in Treaty Number 7 and did much negotiating for his people. While many believe Chief Crowfoot had no part in the North-West Rebellion, he did in fact participate to an extent due to his son's connection to the conflict. Crowfoot died of tuberculosis at Blackfoot Crossing on April 25, 1890. Eight hundred of his tribe attended his funeral, along with government dignitaries. In 2008, Chief Crowfoot was inducted into the North America Railway Hall of Fame where he was recognized for his contributions to the railway industry. Crowfoot is well known for his contributions to the Blackfoot nation, and has many memorials to signify his accomplishments.

Contents 1 Early life 2 Leadership of the Siksika Nation 3 Family 4 North-West Rebellion 5 After the Rebellion 6 Treaty 7 7 After the treaty 8 Legacy of Chief Crowfoot 9 The Ballad of Crowfoot 10 Bibliography 11 References 12 External links

Early life

Chief Crowfoot was born in 1830 to the Kainai, known to traders and Canadian settlers as the Bloods, one of the tribes of the Blackfoot Confederacy. His father was Istowun-eh'pata (Packs a Knife) and Axkahp-say-pi (Attacked Towards Home) He was first known as Shot-Close. Later as a boy he was given the name Bear Ghost and then his father’s name Packs-a Knife after he had been killed by members of the Crow tribe. These different names came at different times in his life as he proved himself a skilled Blackfoot warrior and later in his life, a Blackfoot chief. A year after his father died, his mother remarried a member of the Siksika tribe Akay-nehka-simi (Many Names) who eventually came to bring his new wife back to the Siksika tribe. Crowfoot followed his new father and mother to the Siksika on foot for several hours, eventually causing the two to turn around and bring both the young Crowfoot and his grandfather Scabby bull with them to the Blackfoot tribe. It was with this tribe where Crowfoot would prove himself as a warrior and leader. Leadership of the Siksika Nation

Crowfoot’s bravery and determination earned him respect from fellow Blackfoot, but it was his skills as a voice of peace and reason that would make him one of the most respected Canadian natives when he rose to become one of the leaders of the Blackfoot nation. Crowfoot was often called Manistokos, which means father of the people, because of his caring nature in regards to his tribe members. He was known to provide food to those who needed it in his tribe.

Crowfoot worked hard to build relations between the Blackfoot and the agents of different organizations that came into their lands, such as the Hudson’s Bay Company and the North-West Mounted Police. This effort by Crowfoot sometimes led him to come into conflict with other members of his nation, such as when he stopped a group of Blackfoot warriors from raiding a Hudson’s Bay caravan.

Crowfoot had interactions with another famous Native chief, Sitting Bull. These interactions occurred when the Blackfoot moved south following the disappearing Bison herds. When the Blackfoot arrived in Sioux territory, Sitting Bull invited Crowfoot to combine their strength and fight against both the United States and the North-West Mounted Police. Crowfoot refused this offer, understanding that his people and the Sioux together were not strong enough to stand for long against the strength of the United States Military and the Canadian government. Eventually, Crowfoot led the Blackfoot back into Canadian territory, leaving on bad terms with Sitting Bull. When the Sioux came into Canada, fleeing pursuing American forces, Crowfoot made peace with Sitting Bull and his tribe. This helped protect the Sioux from pursuing American forces for a time, but eventually economic factors forced the Blackfoot to push the Police to force the Sioux back into the United States. Family

Crowfoot would have a total of 10 wives throughout his life, but never more than 3 or 4 at a time. His first wife was named Cutting Woman and she was favoured over the other wives. Crowfoot had many children with his wives, but only four of them lived to adulthood, one son, who was blind, and three daughters. At one point Crowfoot had a son that showed potential as a warrior and leader but he was killed in his early teenager years in a battle against the Cree. Crowfoot vowed to avenge the death of his son and personally lead a raid against a nearby Cree camp to kill one Cree tribe member. During the raid, the blackfoot captured a young Cree man, who bore a resemblance to Crowfoot’s dead son. Crowfoot adopted the young man. Later this Cree man would return to his people and become infamous in Canada as the chief Poundmaker. North-West Rebellion

In 1885 Louis Riel returned to Canada after spending several years in the United States in exile. In what is now Saskatchewan, he created a Métis provisional government after rising tensions between the West and Ottawa.The creation of this provisional government and their demands for a métis land is what would eventually lead to the beginning of the North-West Rebellion. This rebellion was composed primarily of Métis supporters, but it also had some support from local Native tribes who had grown resentful of the incursions by settlers onto their lands and the fear that their people would be swallowed by the influx of people from the East. These rebels hoped to gain the support of the powerful Blackfoot nation to defeat the settlers and the coming Canadian forces.

During the North-West Rebellion Crowfoot chose to remove himself and his people from the fighting that took place for as long as possible. He knew that the rebel fighters were fighting a losing battle, but on the other hand his adopted son Poundmaker was deeply involved in the conflict. Crowfoot was also aware of the fact that the Blackfoot were not treated much better by the Métis who were then fighting the Canadian government.

While the rebellion was ongoing, agents from both sides of the conflict sought to gain the support of the Blackfoot nation. It was mainly due to the respect the warriors of the nation gave Crowfoot that they followed his instruction to not become involved in the fighting.

However, after much debate Crowfoot did choose to back the crown, though he continued to remain as removed as he could. Despite his agreement with the crown he allowed Cree refugees into his camp during the rebellion. Due to Crowfoot’s hesitancy towards being involved in the rebellion, the loyalty of the Blackfoot nation was questioned. Crowfoot’s involvement in the rebellion was centered entirely around his loyalty to the Blackfeet tribe. After the Rebellion

At the end of the rebellion Poundmaker was in jail and set to go to trial in Regina, Crowfoot sent Governor Dewdney a letter asking for him to grant him a pardon. Crowfoot’s request was denied and Poundmaker was found guilty and sentenced to serve three years in a penitentiary. He ended up only serving 6 months and was released at the request of Governor Dewdney.

Upon being released Poundmaker returned to visit Crowfoot to reconnect with his adopted father. During this visit he died, potentially as a result of his deteriorating health from his prison stay. This devastated Crowfoot as his only healthy son was dead.

The refusal by Crowfoot to provide aid to the rebellion made the Canadian government regard him as a potentially useful ally for negotiating treaties with the Blackfoot and other Native nations. The treaty that was the most important for Crowfoot and the Blackfoot was called Treaty #7 by the Canadian government. Treaty 7

The main purpose of the treaty from the perspective of the Canadian government, was to seize control of all Native claims to the western prairie land and to prevent themselves from being antagonized. They falsely considered Crowfoot to be the leader of of the entire Blackfoot Confederation, including the Blood and Northern Piegan, much to the anger of those nations’ respective leaders. Crowfoot thus had a greater reputation as a diplomat than these Chiefs and though he always made sure they were consulted in making decisions, he did not feel at all uncomfortable playing the role of supreme commander. Commissioner David Laird promised rations of flour, tea, sugar, tobacco and beef to be provided during negotiations, but Crowfoot, skeptical of their intentions, refused them until he had all the terms of the treaty.
65/511 63 64 66 67 68