Orthognathic surgery and Barbara Slater (sports producer)Orthognathic surgery /ˌɔrθəɡˈnæθɨk/ is surgery to correct conditions of the jaw and face related to structure, growth, sleep apnea, TMJ disorders, malocclusion problems owing to skeletal disharmonies, or other orthodontic problems that cannot be easily treated with braces. Originally coined by Harold Hargis, it is also used in treatment of congenital conditions like cleft palate. Bones can be cut and re-aligned, then held in place with either screws or plates. Orthognathic surgery can also be referred to as corrective jaw surgery.Contents 1 Medical uses 2 Complications 3 Surgery 4 Planning 5 Procedure 6 Post operation 7 See also 8 ReferencesMedical usesIt is estimated that nearly 5% of the UK or USA population present with dentofacial deformities that are not amenable to orthodontic treatment requiring orthognathic surgery as a part of their definitive treatment. Orthognathic surgery can be used to correct; Gross jaw discrepancies (anteroposterior, vertical, or transverse discrepancies) Facial skeletal discrepancies associated with documented sleep apnea, airway defects, and soft tissue discrepancies Facial skeletal discrepancies associated with documented temporomandibular joint pathology ComplicationsLike any other surgery, there can be some complications such as bleeding, swelling, infection, nausea and vomiting. There could also be some numbness in the face due to nerve damage. The numbness may be either temporary, or, more rarely, permanent. In general, complications of this surgery occur infrequently.If the surgery involved the upper jaw, then the surgery could have an effect on the shape of the patient's nose. This can be minimised by careful planning and accurate execution of the surgical plan. Sometimes, this is considered part of the benefit. SurgeryOrthognathic surgery is performed by an oral and maxillofacial surgeon in collaboration with an orthodontist. It often includes braces before and after surgery, and retainers after the final removal of braces. Orthognathic surgery is often needed after reconstruction of cleft palate or other major craniofacial anomalies. Careful coordination between the surgeon and orthodontist is essential to ensure that the teeth will fit correctly after the surgery. PlanningPlanning for the surgery usually involves input from a multidisciplinary team. Involved professionals are oral and maxillofacial surgeons, orthodontists, and occasionally speech and language therapist. As the surgery usually results in a noticeable change in the patient's face a psychological assessment is occasionally required to assess patient's need for surgery and its predicted effect on the patient.Radiographs and photographs are taken to help in the planning and there is software to predict the shape of the patient's face after surgery, which is useful both for planning and for explaining the surgery to the patient and the patient's family. Advanced software can allow the patient to see the predicted results of the surgery.The main goals of orthognathic surgery are to achieve a correct bite, an aesthetic face and an enlarged airway. While correcting the bite is important, if the face is not considered the resulting bone changes might lead to an unaesthetic result. Orthognathic surgery is also available as a very successful treatment (90–100%) for obstructive sleep apnea. Great care needs to be taken during the planning phase to maximize airway patency. ProcedureThe surgery might involve one jaw or the two jaws during the same procedure. The modification is done by making cuts in the bones of the mandible and / or maxilla and repositioning the cut pieces in the desired alignment. Usually surgery is performed under general anaesthetic and using nasal tube for intubation rather than the more commonly used oral tube; this is to allow wiring the teeth together during surgery. The surgery often does not involve cutting the skin, and instead, the surgeon is often able to go through the inside of the mouth.Cutting the bone is called osteotomy and in case of performing the surgery on the two jaws at the same time it is called a bi-maxillary osteotomy (two jaws bone cutting) or a maxillomandibular advancement. The bone cutting is traditionally done using special electrical saws and burs, and manual chisels. The recent advent of piezoelectric saws have simplified bone cutting, but such equipment has not yet become the norm outside of the most developed countries. The maxilla can be adjusted using a "Lefort I" level osteotomy (most common). Sometimes the midface can be mobilised as well by using a Lefort II, or Lefort III osteotomy. These techniques are utilized extensively for children suffering from certain craniofacial abnormalities such as Crouzon syndrome.The jaws will be wired together (inter-maxillary fixation) using stainless steel wires during the surgery to ensure the correct re-positioning of the bones. This in most cases is released before the patient wakes up. Some surgeons prefer to wire the jaws shut.In some cases, the changing of the jaw structure will cause the cheeks to become depressed and shallow. Some procedures will call for the insertion of implants to give the patient's face a fuller look. Post operationAfter orthognathic surgery, patients are often required to adhere to an all-liquid diet. After time, soft food can be introduced, and then hard food. Diet is very important after the surgery, to accelerate the healing process. Weight loss due to lack of appetite and the liquid diet is common, but should be avoided if possible. Normal recovery time can range from a few weeks for minor surgery, to up to a year for more complicated surgery.For some surgeries, pain may be minimal due to minor nerve damage and lack of feeling. Doctors will prescribe pain medication and prophylactic antibiotics to the patient. There is often a large amount of swelling around the jaw area, and in some cases bruising. Most of the swelling will disappear in the first few weeks, but some may remain for a few months.The surgeon will see the patient for check-ups frequently, to check on the healing, check for infection, and to make sure nothing has moved. The frequency of visits will decrease over time. If the surgeon is unsatisfied with the way the bone is mending, she/he may recommend additional surgery to rectify whatever may have shifted. It is very important to avoid any chewing until the surgeon is satisfied with the healing. See also Craniofacial surgery Oral and maxillofacial surgery Orthodontics Surgery
Barbara Slater (sports producer) and Orthognathic surgeryBarbara Slater at the Nations & Regions Media Conference in 2012Barbara Jane Slater OBE (born 10 May 1959 in Birmingham, England) is a sports producer and former gymnast. Slater became the BBC's first female Director of Sport in April 2009. Previous to this, she had been Head of Production and Head of General sports for a number of years.Slater was born into a sporting family: her father, Bill, was a professional footballer who played for England, won the Footballer of the Year award in 1960, and won three Football League titles with Wolverhampton Wanderers. Her uncle, J J Warr, played for the England cricket team. Slater gained two degrees, at the universities of Birmingham and Oxford, before qualifying to be a PE teacher at Loughborough, one of the most prestigious sporting institutions in the country. Slater appeared in the gymnastics competition at the 1976 Summer Olympics, carrying the British flag at the opening ceremony, and eventually earned 20 caps as an international gymnast. As a gymnast, she finished runner-up in the British Championships in the same year as her appearance at the Olympics. In other sporting achievements, she reached national standard at diving and was a club-level squash player.Slater was first employed by the BBC in 1983, when she became a trainee Assistant Producer. She had previous experience in the TV industry starring in the 1978 TV thriller show "Out of Bounds" before working for ATV Sport, a company run by her father's colleague Billy Wright. In 1984 she joined the BBC's sports division as an Assistant Producer. Slater worked her way up the corporation's hierarchy as a Producer, Senior Producer, and Executive Producer. She eventually became head of sports production, and helped produce programmes for events such as The Open and Masters golf, the Commonwealth Games, the Grand National, Ascot and the Derby. In 2009, it was announced that she would become director of sport, taking over from Roger Mosey, and becoming the first woman to hold the position. Mosey became the BBC Director of London 2012. Slater has overseen the department's relocation to Salford (BBC Sport is one of five departments that has been moved from London to Salford), as well as the 2012 Summer Olympics, held in London. She has also presided over events such as the 2010 World Cup and 2010 Winter Olympics. Barbara also, in 2013 won back the broadcasting rights of the FA Cup, in a major coup, ensuring live first-class football was available to licence fee payers. Speaking of her appointment, she said "I am thrilled to have this opportunity to lead BBC Sport at such an exciting and challenging time, that includes leading the division to its new home at the heart of BBC North and also ensuring BBC Sport plays its part in making the 2012 Games the success they deserve to be." During her time as Director of Sport though Slater has overseen the loss of many exclusive BBC Sport deals most notably that of full time Formula One coverage from free to air broadcasting and the Grand National which saw Channel 4 gain the rights in March 2012.Slater was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE) in the 2014 Birthday Honours for services to sports broadcasting.
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