Netherne Hospital and Jessica Amanda Salmonson

The former administration block of Netherne Hospital in 2007 The former hospital chapel of St. Luke, now in use as a swimming pool

Netherne Hospital, formerly The Surrey County Asylum at Netherne or Netherne Asylum was a psychiatric hospital in Hooley, Surrey in the United Kingdom. Contents 1 Design and Construction 2 Early Years 3 Wartime Service 4 Psychosurgery 5 Post-War developments 6 Art therapy and the Adamson Collection 7 Decline 8 Redevelopment 9 See also 10 References

Design and Construction

Netherne Asylum was founded on 18 October 1905 to alleviate overcrowding at the existing Brookwood Asylum near Woking. The hospital was designed by George Thomas Hine, Consultant Architect to the Commissioners in Lunacy to hold 960 patients. The buildings followed the popular compact arrow design, with stepped ward blocks on the outside of a broad semi-circle containing the central services such as the administrative offices, laundry, workshops, water tower, boilers and recreation hall. A freestanding chapel was located to the front of the hospital buildings, while an isolation hospital and patients' cemetery were located some distance to the north of the main buildings. Early Years

Even in its early days, Netherne gained a reputation as a pioneering force in the treatment of mental illness and for setting standards for patient care. Inmates worked on the hospital's extensive estate, in the hospital workshops, in the laundry or were employed in various handicrafts. In their leisure time they could enjoy reading books and newspapers, attend monthly dances and fancy dress parties and a Christmas pantomime in addition to playing indoor and outdoor sports.

During the First World War, Netherne took on significant numbers of patients from neighbouring institutions which had been commandeered as War Hospitals. In the 1920s, the hospital was renamed Netherne Mental Hospital, the term 'Asylum' having fallen out of favour. In 1933, Fairdene, a voluntary admissions hospital was opened to the south of the site together with seven new convalescent villas and two female wards. Wartime Service

Despite recent expansion, the Second World War stretched the hospital's resources with 6 wards and 2 villas being requisitioned for the treatment of air raid casualties. Patients who were able helped to assemble electrical components for a nearby munitions factory and by the end of the war most patients were employed in sustaining the war effort. Over the course of the war, several bombs fell in the grounds and another landed on the nurse's home but failed to explode. Psychosurgery

In 1942 Eric Cunningham Dax, medical superintendent of Netherne Hospital, called in surgeon Eric Radley Smith to perform psychosurgery on patients. Before the end of the year, fifty patients had undergone surgery, and in April 1943 the results were published in the Journal of Mental Science. Cunningham Dax described how he selected patients:

"The operation was carried out with the primary object of relieving the most disturbed patients in the hospital quite independently of their poor prognosis. They formed a large proportion of the most violent, hostile, noisy, excited, destructive or obscene cases in the hospital; the type who distress their relatives, upset the other patients and consume the time and energy which could be put to so much better purpose by the staff".

Two died of cerebral haemorrhage, two were discharged (of whom one relapsed); of those remaining in hospital two-thirds had shown at least some improvement, needing less staff time and supervision. Post-War developments

In 1948, the hospital became part of the newly formed National Health Service. In the same year, Eleanor Roosevelt visited, later commenting that hospitals in the United States had a lot to learn from Netherne.

The introduction of new drugs in the 1950s caused many changes, including the removal of security fencing. In 1961, following the so-called Water Tower Speech by Minisiter of Health Enoch Powell which called for mental hospitals to be closed in favour of community care and the use of general hospital acute units, Netherne formed a partnership with Redhill General Hospital in 1965, and the intake of patients was gradually reduced. Art therapy and the Adamson Collection Edward Adamson.

From 1946, Netherne became a national centre for art therapy under Edward Adamson, a pioneering art therapist and the first chairman of the British Association of Art Therapists. Adamson established five art studios at the hospital, focusing on art as a means for people to express themselves and communicate their feelings. During his time at Netherne, Adamson worked with hundreds of patients, including the painter William Kurelek and sculptor Rolanda Polonsky. He continued to work at the hospital until his retirement in 1981.

Adamson gathered the works of those compelled to live at Netherne in great number, amassing a considerable collection, estimated at 100,000 at his retirement in 1981; and selected works were on show at a purpose built gallery opened at Netherne in 1956. After Adamson's death in 1996, the Adamson Collection was moved to Lambeth Hospital, part of South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, and during 2012 and 2013 almost all re-located to the Wellcome Library in anticipation of a securer future in several international institutions. The Adamson Collection now comprises approximately 6000 paintings, drawings, sculptures and ceramics, and is of great international and historical importance. Decline

Following a steady decline in patient numbers from almost two thousand in the 1950s to 750 in 1986 and just 150 in 1990, the hospital finally closed in 1994 and the remaining 150 patients were integrated into the local community under a supported care programme.

The former hospital estate was sold by the Secretary of State for Health to developer MJ Gleeson in 1995. The Hospital stood derelict pending planning permission for most of the 1990s with development of a new village beginning c.2003. Redevelopment

Between 2003 and 2005 most of the hospital buildings were demolished with only the administration block, recreation hall, chapel, water tower, staff housing and some wards being retained. These were later converted into apartments and incorporated into a new village community called Netherne-on-the-Hill. See also Netherne-on-the-Hill Eric Cunningham Dax Edward Adamson

Jessica Amanda Salmonson and Netherne Hospital

Jessica Amanda Salmonson, born January 6, 1950, is an author, editor and poet of fantasy and horror fiction.

Contents 1 Works 1.1 Author 1.2 Editor 1.3 Web presence 2 Awards 3 Select bibliography 3.1 Tomoe Gozen trilogy 3.2 Other novels 3.3 Collections 3.4 Poetry collections 3.5 Non-fiction 3.6 Anthologies edited 3.7 Collections edited 4 References 5 External links

Works Author

Salmonson is the author of the Tomoe Gozen trilogy, a fantasy version of the tale of the historical female samurai Tomoe Gozen. Her other novels are The Swordswoman, Ou Lu Khen and the Beautiful Madwoman, an Asian fantasy, and a modern horror novel, Anthony Shriek.

Her short story collections include A Silver Thread of Madness; Mystic Women; John Collier and Fredric Brown Went Quarreling Through My Head; The Deep Museum: Ghost Stories of a Melancholic; and The Dark Tales. Poetry collections include Horn of Tara and The Ghost Garden. Editor

Salmonson was the editor of the anthologies Amazons! and Amazons II; Heroic Visions and Heroic Visions II; Tales by Moonlight and Tales by Moonlight II; and What Did Miss Darrington See: An Anthology of Feminist Supernatural Stories.

She has also edited a series of single-author collections of ghost stories and weird tales, many of them of historical significance to genre literature, including volumes by Marjorie Bowen, Alice Brown, Thomas Burke, Olivia Howard Dunbar, Hildegarde Hawthorne, Julian Hawthorne, Augustus Jessopp, Sarah Orne Jewett, Anna Nicholas, Fitz-James O'Brien, Vincent O'Sullivan, Georgia Wood Pangborn, Harriet Prescott Spofford, Mary Heaton Vorse, Jerome K. Jerome.

From 1973 to 1975, she was one of the editors of The Literary Magazine of Fantasy and Terror, a small-press magazine. She went on to edit Fantasy Macabre from 1985 until the final issue, #17, in 1996. The magazine was subtitled "Beauty plus strangeness equals terror." Web presence

In 2009, Salmonson posted a set of 240 film reviews, the Weird Wild Realm of Paghat the Ratgirl, in which she reviewed films of all kinds, from art films to exploitation films, with coverage in particular of horror films, Japanese cinema, and Chinese cinema. Her site, In the Garden of Paghat the Ratgirl, is the world's largest website devoted to temperate gardening. Awards 1980: World Fantasy Award for best collection, Amazons! (1979). 1989: Lambda Literary Award for Lesbian Science Fiction/Fantasy, What Did Miss Darrington See?: An Anthology of Feminist Supernatural Fiction. Select bibliography Tomoe Gozen trilogy Tomoe Gozen (Ace Books 1981) (revised as The Disfavored Hero (Pacific Warriors 1999)) The Golden Naginata (Ace Books 1982) Thousand Shrine Warrior (Ace Books 1984) Other novels The Swordswoman (Ace Books 1982) Ou Lu Khen and the Beautiful Madwoman (Ace Books 1985) Anthony Shriek, His Doleful Adventures; or, Lovers of Another Realm (Dell Abyss 1992) Collections Hag's Tapestry (Haunted Library, UK: 1986) A Silver Thread of Madness (Ace Books 1989) John Collier and Fredric Brown Went Quarreling Through My Head (W. Paul Ganley 1989) Harmless Ghosts (Haunted Library, UK: 1990) Mystic Women: Their Ancient Tales and Legends... (Seattle: Street of Crocodiles 1991) The Mysterious Doom and Other Ghostly Tales of the Pacific Northwest (Seattle: Sasquatch Books 1992) The Eleventh Jaguarundi and Other Mysterious Persons (LaGrande, OR: Wordcraft of Oregon 1995) Phantom Waters: Northwest Legends of Rivers, Lakes & Shores (Seattle: Sasquatch Books 1995) Mister Monkey and Other Sumerian Fables (Seattle: Tabula Rasa Press, miniature book, 1995) Twenty-one Epic Novels (Seattle: Tabula Rasa, miniature book, 2002) The Dark Tales (Wales: Sarob Press 1991) The Deep Museum: Ghost Stories of a Melancholic (British Columbia: Ash-Tree Press 2003) "The Compleat Weird Epistles of Penelope Pettiweather, Ghost Hunter" (Alchemy Press, UK, 2015) Poetry collections "The Black Crusader and Other Poems of Horror" (Springfield, MO: W. D. Firestone, 1979) On the Shores of Eternity (Seattle: Duck's-Foot Tree Productions 1981) "Feigned Death and Other Sorceries" (Seattle: Duck's-Foot Tree, 1983) "Innocent of Evil: Poems in Prose" (Madison, WI: Dream House, 1984) The Ghost Garden (Liverpool: Dark Dreams Press, 1988) "Sorceries and Sorrows: Early Poems" (Polk City, IA: Chris Drumm Books, 1992) "Songs of the Maenads" (Seattle Duck's-Foot Tree and the Street of Crocodiles, 1992) The Horn of Tara (Seattle: Duck's-Foot Tree, 1995) Lake of the Devil" (Seattle: Duck's-Foot Tree, 1995) "Strange Miniatures from a Northwest Studio" (Bremerton: Duck's-Foot Tree, 2001) "The Death Sonnets and Others" (Rainfall Books, UK, 2015) Non-fiction The Encyclopedia of Amazons: Women Warriors from Antiquity to the Present Era (1991) Wisewomen and Boggy-Boos: A Dictionary of Lesbian Fairy Lore (1992) (with Jules Remedios Faye) Anthologies edited Amazons! (NY: DAW Books, 1979) Amazons II (NY: DAW Books, 1982) Heroic Visions (NY: Ace Books, 1983) Tales by Moonlight (NY: Tor Books, 1983) "The Haunted Wherry and Other Rare Ghost Stories" (Madison: Strange Company, 1985) Heroic Visions II (NY: Ace Books, 1986) Tales by Moonlight II (NY: Tor Books, 1989) What Did Miss Darrington See? (NY: The Feminist Press at CUNY, 1989) "Wife or Spinster: Short Stories by 19th Century American Women" (Maine: Yankee Books, 1991) with Charles Waugh Collections edited Faded Garden: the Collected Ghost Stories of Hildegarde Hawthorne (1985) The Supernatural Stories of Fitz-James O'Brien Volume One: Macabre Tales (NY: Doubleday, 1988) The Supernatural Stories of Fitz-James O'Brien Volume Two: Dream Tales and Fantasies (NY: Doubleday, 1988) From Out of the Past: The Indiana Ghost Stories of Anna Nicholas (Ghost Story Society, UK: 1992) Master of Fallen Years: Complete Supernatural Stories of Vincent O'Sullivan (Ghost Story Press, UK: 1995) The Rose of Death and Other Mysterious Delusions by Julian Hawthorne (British Columbia: Ash-Tree Press, 1997) The Shell of Sense: Collected Ghost Stories of Olivia Howard Dunbar (Uncasville, CT: R. H. Fawcett, 1997) Twilight and Other Supernatural Romances by Marjorie Bowen (Ash-Tree Press, 1998) Lady Ferry and Other Uncanny People by Sarah Orne Jewett (Ash-Tree Press, 1998) The Phantom Coach and Other Ghost Stories of an Antiquary by Augustus Jessopp (R. H. Fawcett, 1998) The Wind at Midnight by Georgia Wood Pangborn (Ash-Tree Press, 1999) The Moonstone Mass and Others by Harriet Prescott Spofford (Ash-Tree Press, 2000) The Golden Gong and Other Night-Pieces by Thomas Burke (Ash-Tree Press, 2001) Sinister Romance: Collected Ghost Stories by Mary Heaton Vorse (Ash-Tree Press, 2002) The Empire of Death and Other Strange Stories by Alice Brown (Ash-Tree Press, 2003) "City of the Sea and Other Ghost Stories by Jerome K. Jerome" (Ash-Tree Press, 2008) "The Wondersmith and Others" by Fitz-James O'Brien (Ash-Tree Press, 2008)
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