Hanna Krall and Chinese pond turtle

Hanna Krall (born 20 May 1935 in Warsaw) is a Polish writer with a degree in journalism from the Warsaw University, specializing among other subjects in the history of the Holocaust in occupied Poland.

Contents 1 Biography 1.1 Journalism 1.2 Books 2 Notes 3 References

Biography

Krall is of Jewish origin, the daughter of Salomon Krall and Felicia Jadwiga née Reichold. She was four years old, living in Lublin, when the World War II began with the Nazi German invasion of Poland. Krall lost most of her close relatives in the Holocaust. She survived deportations to death camps only because she was hidden from the Nazis by the Polish rescuers. Journalism

After Krall finished her studies in journalism, she started working for the Polish local paper "Życie Warszawy" ("Warsaw Life") in 1955. In 1966 she left the paper and began to write for the well known magazine Polityka ("Politics"). Shortly after, Wojciech Jaruzelski, then Prime Minister of the former People's Republic of Poland, declared martial law, Krall left "Polityka" and wrote articles for the "Gazeta Wyborcza" some time later. Books

During Krall's time working for "Polityka", she published her first book named Na wschód od Arbatu ("Heading east from Arbat") in 1972, written after she spent several years as a correspondent in Moscow. The book depicted day-to-day life in Moscow during the 1960s.

Commercial success came with the publication of Zdążyć przed Panem Bogiem (engl. title: "Shielding the Flame"). The book is about a Polish Jewish cardiologist and social activist, Marek Edelman, who was one of the founders of Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa (Jewish Combat Organization) and who took over its leadership after the head-commander Mordechai Anielewicz had perished. Edelman was at that time the only living leader of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising. 'Shielding the Flame can be seen as a model for most of Krall's works. Krall describes the relations between Jews, Poles and Germans during the Holocaust and the years thereafter. Pawel Huelle, Hanna Krall and Dorota Nowak discussion at the Literaturomania in Gdańsk, 2009

Apart from the central Holocaust theme, Krall's writings also reflect her search for her own identity, as can be seen very clearly in Dowody na istnienie ("Evidence for Existence"). Another theme in this book is the often complicated destiny of the Polish people in history and the influence of the past on people's lives in the present. Krall was a friend of Krzysztof Kieślowski and Krzysztof Piesiewicz, and inspired Decalogue Number 8 in the series of films made by these two men. Notes ^ Współcześni polscy pisarze i badacze literatury. Słownik biobibliograficzny, pod red. Jadwigi Czachowskiej i Alicji Szałagan. Warszawa 1996. Tom 4. ISBN 83-02-05974-9, s. 363 ^ a b "Hanna Krall". Miejsce dla Wybitnych.pl. 2014. Retrieved 4 September 2014. 

Chinese pond turtle and Hanna Krall

Mauremys reevesii in East Timor

The Chinese pond turtle, Reeves' turtle, or Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (Mauremys reevesii) is a species of turtles in the family Geoemydidae (formerly called Bataguridae). It is found in China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. This species is semiaquatic, and basks in the sun on rocks or logs and can often be found leaving water to do so. They can usually be found in marshes, relatively shallow ponds, streams, and canals with muddy or sandy bottoms.

The Chinese three-keeled pond turtle (M. reevesii) is threatened by competition with released pet red-eared sliders (T. s. elegans), overhunting (its plastron is used in traditional Chinese medicine), capturing for the pet trade and wild habitat destruction. The IUCN considers M. reevesii an endangered species. This species, fortunately, breeds well in captivity.

Contents 1 Hybridization 2 Farming 2.1 Pet trade 3 References 4 External links

Hybridization

This species is notorious for its ability to produce hybrids with other Geoemydidae, even species that are only distantly related. The supposed new species "Mauremys" pritchardi was based on a hybrid of unknown origin between a male of this species and a female yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica). Furthermore, it has hybridized with the Chinese stripe-necked turtle (Ocadia sinensis), female Malayan box turtles (Cuora amboinensis), a male four-eyed turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata), and the Japanese pond turtle (Mauremys japonica) in captivity.

Any individuals that are available as pets therefore need to be kept separate from other members of the family. Farming

M. reevesii is one of the species raised on China's turtle farms. According to a 1998 survey, 548 farms raised this turtle species in four provinces in China. The statistical data from different provinces were in different formats; however, two provinces reported 20,650 turtles living on 26 farms, with 5,000 animals reproduced annually; the other two provinces reported the total weight of their turtles, namely some 260 tons of these animals on 522 farms. Over the five-year period, 1990–1995, 13 traditional Chinese medicine factories consumed 430 tons of C. reevesii plastrons.

Based on a more recent (2002) survey of 684 Chinese turtle farms (less than half of all 1,499 turtle farms that were registered at the time), researchers found that 2.8 million of turtles of this species (reported there as Chinemys reevesii) lived on these farms, with some 566,000 specimens sold by farmers every year. The total weight of the annual product was 320 tons, with the estimated value of over US$6 million, which makes the market value of a Chinese pond turtle equal to around $12—about twice as much that of the most common farmed species, Pelodiscus sinensis.) Taking into account the registered farms that did not respond to the survey, as well as the unregistered producers, the total amounts must be considerably higher. Pet trade

Chinese pond turtles are also farmed for the pet trade. In captivity, they require similar care to red-eared sliders (T. s. elegans).
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